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Vaccination in Estonia

How can I get vaccinated against COVID-19?

A vaccination appointment can be booked:

  • at the digital registry at http://www.digilugu.ee
  • by calling 1247 (every day between 08.00 and 20.00)
  • at a pharmacy: find a pharmacy closest to you and book an appointment at the web page vaktsineeriapteegis.ee (in Estonian)
  • by calling the registry of the local hospital or medical institution.

It is also possible to get immunised without prior registration in vaccination buses and vaccination points. You can find all the options in different towns and counties from the web page vaktsineeri.ee -- locations that have no prior booking requirement have a green label "without registration".

Within the limits of Tallinn, a group of at least ten adults have the option of ordering a vaccine ambulance for themselves. The service can be ordered by sending an e-mail to ltkhvak[at]keskhaigla[dot]ee. The query must contain an address where the ambulance is ordered, a date, the desired time of day, the number of people who want to get vaccinated (10 at minimum) and their personal identification codes. The vaccination ambulance team will contact the person who submitted the order to agree upon the exact time.

The location of vaccination is not connected to a person's official place of residence: everyone can book an appointment and go to get vaccinated in an area suitable to them all across Estonia. A booking for a minor must be done by his legal representative.

In addition to hospitals and private health care service providers it is possible to get vaccinated at schools (more information: vaktsineeri.ee (in Estonian). The elderly and people in risk groups also continue to be vaccinated by family doctors.

Make certain to be on time for your vaccination appointment or let the vaccinating institution know at first chance if you will not be able to go to your agreed upon vaccination for some reason.

If you need further counselling on COVID-19 vaccinations, we recommend that you consult with your family doctor or call the Family Doctor's Advice Line 1220 or 634 66 30. The calls are answered by medical professionals 24/7. Advice is given in Estonian and Russian (advice in English every day between 15.00 and 17.00).

How will the COVID-19 vaccination be organised in Estonia? Who are conducting the vaccinations and where?

Vaccinations can be administered by those doctors, nurses and midwives who have completed a basic training on immunization and refresher training within the previous five years.

Estonia has an agreement with the coronavirus vaccine manufacturers that the vaccines are delivered to the Health Board where the necessary vaccine storage conditions (including extremely low temperatures and following of the cold-chain requirements) are guaranteed. The Health Board organises the national distribution of the COVID-19 vaccines to the vaccination locations according to the vaccine distribution plan. Transport is guaranteed in a way that does not necessitate the creation of new and irregular storage conditions in vaccination locations. Even the most high maintenance vaccines can be stored in regular conditions for five days.

In 2021, the vaccination against the coronavirus is free to all Estonian residents (including those who are not covered by health insurance), persons who are in Estonia with a study, residence or work permit and European Union citizens staying here longer. Vaccination is voluntary.

More information on where and how to get vaccinated can be found on the web page vaktsineeri.ee:.

How does vaccination take place for people who are in Estonia temporarily (do not have an Estonian personal identification code and health insurance)?

Vaccination is free in Estonia for:

  • foreigners who do not have an Estonian personal identification code but are here with a residency, study or work permit
  • European Union citizens staying here for longer who have a valid European Health Insurance Card.

Tourists temporarily visiting the country cannot get vaccinated in Estonia.

Is vaccination voluntary in Estonia?

Yes, vaccinations are voluntary in Estonia and the same also applies for the vaccination against COVID-19.

At the same time, it is highly recommended to get immunised against the coronavirus as vaccination reduces severe illness and hospitalisations, makes it possible to also protect those who cannot get vaccinated themselves, and is probably the only real solution for turning back to our regular order of life.

Information on where and how to get vaccinated can be found on the web page vaktsineeri.ee. If you need further counselling to make a COVID-19 vaccination decision, we recommend consulting with your family doctor or calling the Family Doctor's Advice Line 1220 or 634 66 30. The calls are answered by medical professionals 24/7. Advice is given in Estonian and Russian (advice in English every day between 15.00 and 17.00).

Can I get a vaccination passport from my family doctor if I turn to them for vaccination?

Persons who get vaccinated at their family doctor's office will, upon request, be issued an immunisation passport in paper format by the family doctor.

Many people will already have received an immunisation passport in the past. If you are one of them, please take it with you when you go out to get vaccinated.

What documents do I need to be able to prove on the border that I have been vaccinated against COVID-19?

The provider of health care services has an obligation to document a vaccination according to the requirements and forward the data to the Health Information System. If you have been vaccinated in Estonia, it is possible to see your own immunization data and, if necessary, print them out from the Patient Portal digilugu.ee (immunization notification, epicrisis). It is also possible to prove vaccination with an immunization passport, that can be issued on paper by the provider of health care services.

People who have been vaccinated while abroad can prove their vaccination by presenting an immunization passport, its copy, or a relevant certificate, that contains, in Latin or Slavic alphabet and in Estonian, Russian or English, among other things, the data of the person immunized, e.g. the disease against which the immunization was done, the date of the immunization, the immunization agent that was used, its lot number, the dosage administered, how many doses have been administered to the person, and the name and other data of the provider of the immunization. The proof can also be an officially certified printout from a database of another country.

More information about the EU certificates EU Digital COVID certificates (EUDCC).

If I am vaccinated against COVID-19 or recovered from it, do I have to stay in self-isolation as a close contact or after crossing the border?

It is not obligatory to stay in quarantine as a close contact or after crossing the border for asymptomatic people who are:

  • vaccinated, i.e. completed the course of vaccinations against COVID-19, achieved maximum protection after the last dose of the vaccine, and no more than one year has passed since the last dose of the vaccine
  • recovered from COVID-19, and no more than 180 days have passed since the SARS-CoV-2 test that confirmed the diagnosis or the date of confirming the diagnosis
  • considered the same as vaccinated, i.e. have received one dose of the vaccine after recovery from COVID-19, achieved maximum protection after the vaccine dose, and no more than one year has passed from the last dose of the vaccine; or who have been infected with COVID-19 in between two doses of the vaccine (no sooner than two weeks after the first shot), have recovered from COVID-19 and no more than one year has passed since the SARS-CoV-2 test that confirmed the diagnosis or the date of confirming the diagnosis.

It is still obligatory for a person who has been vaccinated against COVID-19, recovered from the disease or considered the same as vaccinated to wear a mask or cover one's nose and mouth indoors within 10 days of having been a close contact. The obligation to does not extend to children under the age of 12 or if wearing a mask is not possible for health reasons, due to the nature of a job or activity or for other substantial reasons.

Additionally, an asymptomatic close contact who has had the coronavirus or is vaccinated against it must monitor their health closely during the next 10 days and follow the measures enacted by the government and the Health Board to stop the spread of the virus.

Following the measures is necessary as there is still very little scientific information on how probable it is that people who have had the coronavirus or are vaccinated against it can still get infected with or spread COVID-19.

Does a corona test need to be done before vaccination?

It is not necessary to do a corona test before vaccination. It is, however, necessary to come to the vaccination healthy. Postpone the vaccination temporarily if you are currently suffering from a fever, have COVID-19 or have been a close contact.

Can a person choose which manufacturer's vaccine is administered to her?

Yes -- a choice between the Janssen, Pfizer and Moderna vaccines must be made when booking a COVID-19 vaccination appointment at the digital registry. The AstraZeneca vaccine is not offered to people under the age of 50.

Additionally, the indications and contraindications might differ somewhat between the vaccines of different manufacturers and in that case the person administering the vaccine will choose the suitable one.

How can I change or cancel a vaccination appointment?

Vaccination appointments (1st dose) booked through the digital registry and the call centre can be changed and cancelled in the national digital registry.

The appointment for the second dose is given by the vaccinator. We recommend definitely keeping that appointment. If there is an urgent need to change the time of administering the second dose (illness, becoming a close contact etc.), it is necessary to contact the medical institution that administered the first dose and ask if it is possible to find a new time slot. If this medical institution does not perform vaccinations at other times anymore or it is not possible to book a new appointment for other reasons, the previous appointment needs to be cancelled there (by phone or e-mail) and a new appointment for a second dose needs to be found by calling medical institutions directly.

It is possible to find the medical institutions performing vaccinations from the map at https://vaktsineeri.ee/en/covid-19/getting-a-vaccination/. It is also possible to turn to the state information line 1247 which aids people in finding a suitable medical institution and its contacts.

How can I get a vaccination certificate if I do not have an internet connection and/or a computer and a printer, or a smartphone?

Estonians and foreigners who have an Estonian personal identification code for whom it is not possible to log into the Patient Portal for technical reasons or who cannot create the EU COVID certificates in the Patient Portal, can submit an application for that in all service bureaus of the Social Insurance Board.

In order to create the certificate, the people who turn to the Social Insurance Board must have:

  • an Estonian personal identification code and an identification document
  • the vaccine must have been administered in Estonia

Everyone who wishes to receive a certificate can fill out an application (DOCX) in advance and print it out. An application that has either been filled out in advance or on the spot must be submitted to a suitable service bureau of the Social Insurance Board and an EU COVID certificate will be sent to the person's e-mail address within three working days from that. Even though a vaccination certificate can already be created after one vaccination, in order to participate in different events and activities in Estonia, the course of vaccinations has to be completed. The service is free of charge for everyone. More info from the web page of the Social Insurance Board.

If a person does not have the possibility to print out the certificate or display it from a smartphone, they also have the opportunity, for instance, to turn to the local library. This, however, requires a working ID card and PIN codes. If necessary, a person can also be assisted by the social worker of the local municipality.

If the PIN codes of the ID card are expired or lost, it is possible to apply for a new username and password from the service offices of the Police and Border Guard Board. The service costs 5 Euros.

How can minors, children and youths under the age of 18 get vaccinated?

All residents of Estonia over the age of 12 can get vaccinated.

An appointment for a COVID-19 vaccination can be booked at the Patient Portal digilugu.ee, on the web page vaktsineeriapteegis.ee (in Estonian), from the state helpline 1247, and the registries of local hospitals and medical institutions. At the digital register an appointment for a minor must be booked by a parent or a guardian.

It is also possible to get vaccinated against the coronavirus at schools:

  • in general education schools and vocational schools the vaccination is organised by school nurses who, in addition to vaccinating students, are also authorised to vaccinate the staff and, if necessary, other members of the community.
  • the school nurse can organise the vaccination herself in the schools, include a health care service provider, or organise it so that the persons getting vaccinated arrive at the regional vaccination center.
  • as with other vaccinations, minors are vaccinated at educational institutions only with the consent of a parent or a guardian.

More information: vaktsineeri.ee/vaktsineerimine-koolides (in Estonian).

You can find information on different vaccination options from the web page vaktsineeri.ee. If you need further counselling in order to make a decision about the COVID-19 vaccination, we recommend consulting with your family doctor or calling the Family Doctor's Advice Line 1220 or 634 66 30. Calls are answered by medical professionals 24/7. Advice is provided in Estonian and Russian (in English every day between 15.00 and 17.00).

I received my COVID-19 vaccine abroad/did my COVID-19 PCR test abroad. Do I also get a digital certificate from the Patient Portal?

No, you cannot. The digital COVID-19 health certificates confirm the veracity of the information in the Estonian health information system. The Estonian health information system cannot confirm vaccinations performed or tests done abroad and in order to get the corresponding certificate you should turn to the institution where the vaccination or the test was done.

How is the vaccination organised in the Defence Forces?

The principles that apply to vaccination in the Defence Forces are the same that apply in the rest of Estonia: vaccinations started with the medical workers and units that are important for the daily functioning of the Defence Forces. The vaccines are the best possibility for conquering the coronavirus and returning to the regular order of life, and the Defence Forces certainly encourage our personnel to get vaccinated. The Defence Forces consider it normal that, due to the goal of our activities -- to maintain the defence capabilities of the state, our staff and servicemen are willing to protect themselves, their companions and close ones by getting vaccinated.

Refusing vaccination means that regular restrictions in force in the country must be taken into account. Furthermore, additional restrictions might be enacted with a decree of the Commander of the Defence Forces, applying to the service and movement in the unit and outside of the territory of the unit, in order to prevent the spread of the disease. Each time when people who have not been vaccinated leave the unit, they must do a COVID-19 rapid test upon returning.

I received one dose of the vaccine and became infected with the coronavirus. What will happen with the second dose?

Administering the second shot and declaring the course of vaccinations completed depends on the timing of getting infected with the coronavirus after the first dose of the vaccine:

  • if a person gets infected with COVID-19 within two weeks of receiving the first dose of the vaccine, she is considered recovered and it is recommended that she get vaccinated again with one dose of the vaccine in the sixth month after recovery. After this, the course of vaccination can be considered completed. Before receiving the second dose she can prove her infection risk status with a COVID recovery certificate which is valid if less than 180 days have passed since receiving a positive test result (PCR test).
  • a person who has been administered one dose of the vaccine and who gets infected with COVID-19 more than two weeks after receiving the first dose but before receiving the second dose, does not need to be given the second dose and the course of vaccination is considered completed.

In both cases it is worth noting that the digital certificates do not automatically change based on the fresh information entered by a health care worker (e.g. a positive PCR test result proving recovery or a second dose) but needs to be created again in the Patient Portal digilugu.ee. If there are any questions about the information on the COVID certificate created, it is possible to ask for help from the user support line of the Health and Welfare Information Systems Centre, +372 794 3943 (from 7.00 to 22.00) or from the e-mail abi[at]tehik[dot]ee.

If there is an unavoidable need (due to travel restrictions in certain countries etc.), at the request of a person who has recovered from COVID-19, a doctor can administer them the second dose as well (the minimum time between the two doses is the interval determined in the summary of vaccine properties).

Is it allowed to eat before getting vaccinated? Or is it allowed to go without eating first?

It is allowed to eat before vaccination. If you wish, you can also go without eating first. We would rather recommend eating something first so that missing a meal would not make you feel worse overall.

How can I participate in activities where a COVID certificate is required if vaccinating and/or testing are medically contraindicated for me?

  • If a person cannot get vaccinated due to medical reasons i.e. she has a contraindication to vaccination (e.g. she has anaphylaxis or a strong allergic reaction to some ingredient of the vaccine, has had capillary leak syndrome in the past etc.), it is possible for her to use a certificate of negative test result in order to participate in activities. Contraindication to COVID-19 vaccination is documented by a family doctor or a treating specialist with the international disease classification (RHK-10) code intended for that and that is the basis for free testing at a health care service provider with a referral from a family doctor or the Family Doctor's Advice (1220 or +372 634 6630). If testing is organised in some other way than at a health care service provider, it is a paid service.

  • If a person can get neither vaccinated nor tested due to medical reasons, a family doctor or a treating specialist can issue a certificate based on which she can participate in activities. It has to be taken into account that the certificate is valid nationally, and in other countries the restrictions and requirements in force there should be adhered to. If a person travelling has a very rare (and medically proven) combined contraindication to both testing and vaccination, she has to stay in a 10 day self-isolation after arriving from a risk country. It is very strongly recommended that they also use personal protective equipment, e.g. an FFP2 or FFP3 respirator, when participating in activities.

  • If a person cannot get tested due to medical reasons (e.g. he has a specific facial trauma), it is possible to get vaccinated and participate in activities with a COVID immunisation certificate (either the paper based immunisation passport or a digital certificate).

I was vaccinated with the Russian vaccine Sputnik V, can I register the fact of this vaccination somewhere in Estonia?

Estonia recognises the vaccinations that are recognised by the person’s country of. There is no separate way to register vaccinations received in other countries but the vaccination status of a person does need to be proven on the border.

If I have received my first vaccine dose abroad, is it possible to receive the second dose in Estonia?

Yes, it is. For this you need to be issued a certificate about the first vaccination, and book yourself an appointment for receiving the second dose at the digital registry or by calling the state helpline 1247 (+372 600 1247).

You should still keep in mind the interval between the two doses of the different vaccines:

  • the Pfizer/BioNTech (Comirnaty) vaccine: 6 weeks (maximum protection is achieved 7 days after the second dose)
  • the Moderna (Spikevax) vaccine: 4 weeks (maximum protection is achieved 14 days after the second dose)
  • the Astra Zeneca (Vaxzevria) vaccine: 12 weeks (maximum protection is achieved 15 days after the second dose)

How long will I be infectious if I get sick after getting vaccinated?

If a person gets infected with the COVID-19 disease after receiving the first or the second dose of the vaccine, he can be infectious for up to then days in most cases and has to stay in isolation.

Can an employer request an employee's health data (incl. vaccination) and under what conditions?

The employee is generally not obliged to share their health data with the employer, including information about vaccination.

The employer has the right to ask the employee for confirmation that the employee's state of health does not hinder the performance of work duties and does not pose a danger to other employees or customers.

In particular, the employer has the right to ask about the employee's vaccination in justified cases, if the results of the risk assessment of the work environment show that vaccination is one of the possible measures to prevent infection in the given position and to perform work tasks safely in the future.

Although the employer has the right to ask about vaccination in certain cases, the employee has the right to refuse to share the relevant information with the employer.

In a situation where the employer, based on the results of the risk assessment of the work environment, asks the employee for information about their vaccination status or offers vaccination to the employee, but the employee refuses to provide information related to vaccination or refuses to get vaccinated, the employer can:

  • anticipate and take other measures that can mitigate the risks - for example, additional personal protective equipment, collective protective equipment, etc.

  • if necessary, reorganise the work or the part of the task performed by the employee. If the parties reach an agreement on the reorganisation of work, the terms of the employment contract (for example, change of duties) can only be changed by agreement of the parties on the basis of § 12 of the Employment Contracts Act.

If the employer is not reasonably able to reorganise the work or take other measures to effectively mitigate the risks, the employer may have the right to terminate the employment relationship with the employee pursuant to § 88 (1) 2) of the Employment Contracts Act due to unsuitability to perform the tasks.

If a company has more than 30 employees, it is possible for an employer to make a query to the Health Board about vaccine coverage in its company. An application for that needs to be sent to vaktsineerimine[at]haigekassa[dot]ee. In order to protect personal information, the Health Board only gives out information in a limited form and one of three possible options are forwarded as a reply: 1) less than 50%, 2) the exact percentage if the vaccination coverage is in the range of 50-80%, 3) more than 80%.

Where can I get information on the COVID-19 vaccines and vaccination if I do not have a familly doctor?

Information on the different vaccines used in Estonia and the organisation of the vaccination can be found on the web page vaktsineeri.ee.

If you do not have a family doctor but need further counselling on the COVID-19 vaccination or you have questions, you can call the Family Doctor's Advice Line 1220 or 634 66 30. The calls are answered by medical professionals 24/7. Advice is provided in Estonian and Russian (in English every day from 15.00 to 17.00).

Is it possible and under what conditions can an employer fire an employee (eg in a catering establishment) who refuses to be vaccinated?

Vaccination is voluntary in Estonia. Enabling vaccination in the workplace is one of the possible measures taken by the employer to ensure the safety of the working environment and the protection of the employees´ health, but vaccination cannot be the only way to prevent getting infected with biological risk factors.

If an employee refuses to get vaccinated, the employer can:

  • anticipate and take other measures that can mitigate the risks - for example, additional personal protective equipment, collective protective equipment, etc. The employer therefore has a responsibility primarily to assess whether, for example, the health of the customer service provider and customers can be protected by other measures, such as the obligation to wear a mask, disinfecting hands, using a plexiglass, reducing direct contacts, more frequent surface cleaning and other measures.

  • if necessary, reorganise the work for the specific section of the work or for specific employees. If the parties reach an agreement on the reorganisation of work, the terms of the employment contract (for example, change of duties) can only be changed by agreement of both parties on the basis of § 12 of the Employment Contracts Act.

If the results of the risk assessment of the work environment show that vaccination is particularly important in certain sectors or activities (e.g. health care, nursing homes) and that other measures are not effective enough to protect the health of the employees or clients and patients, then vaccination may be justified.

Vaccination alone may not be helpful in ensuring employee safety, and risk mitigation measures often need to be applied simultaneously.

Am I allowed to postpone getting the second dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine, so that I get it in 12 weeks instead of the initially planned 8 weeks?

Starting from March 15, 2021, the recommendation of the state Immunoprophylaxis Expert Committee is to administer the second dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine 12 weeks after the initial dose. Upon agreement with the vaccinator or the vaccinating institution, it is possible to postpone the appointment for receiving the second dose from the initially arranged time to 12 weeks.

How to explain receiving positive coronavirus test results after getting vaccinated?

The vaccine itself definitely does not contain anything that could cause coronavirus. The vaccine contains only very particular virus particles, not the whole virus.

Thus it is unfortunately unclear where the vaccinated person got the disease. The incubation period of the virus is 2-12 days, so it cannot be ruled out that the person came into contact with the virus more than a week before receiving the first dose of the vaccine, or even on the day of vaccination. It could have taken place at the hospital or any other place that the person happened to be at (public transport, store, elevator, public toilet, and other public places).

Unfortunately five days is not enough time for the vaccine to already offer protection. The test data from the Phase III trials of Pfizer show that infection rates among the vaccinated started to noticeably decrease only 12 days after receiving the first shot. The maximum protection only occurs a week after receiving the second dose.

I received one dose of the vaccine and became infected with the coronavirus. What will happen with the second dose?

Administering the second shot and declaring the course of vaccinations completed depends on the timing of getting infected with the coronavirus after the first dose of the vaccine:

  • if a person gets infected with COVID-19 within two weeks of receiving the first dose of the vaccine, she is considered recovered and it is recommended that she get vaccinated again with one dose of the vaccine in the sixth month after recovery. After this, the course of vaccination can be considered completed. Before receiving the second dose she can prove her infection risk status with a COVID recovery certificate which is valid if less than 180 days have passed since receiving a positive test result (PCR test).
  • a person who has been administered one dose of the vaccine and who gets infected with COVID-19 more than two weeks after receiving the first dose but before receiving the second dose, does not need to be given the second dose and the course of vaccination is considered completed.

In both cases it is worth noting that the digital certificates do not automatically change based on the fresh information entered by a health care worker (e.g. a positive PCR test result proving recovery or a second dose) but needs to be created again in the Patient Portal digilugu.ee. If there are any questions about the information on the COVID certificate created, it is possible to ask for help from the user support line of the Health and Welfare Information Systems Centre, +372 794 3943 (from 7.00 to 22.00) or from the e-mail abi[at]tehik[dot]ee.

If there is an unavoidable need (due to travel restrictions in certain countries etc.), at the request of a person who has recovered from COVID-19, a doctor can administer them the second dose as well (the minimum time between the two doses is the interval determined in the summary of vaccine properties).

Can I get a second dose of some other vaccine if my first dose was AstraZeneca, and how?

In the current stage of vaccination it neither possible nor justified to change the vaccine during the course, thus the first recommendation is to finish the course of vaccination with the same vaccine.

All vaccines in use in Estonia help with the known COVID-19 strains, including the delta strain but it is important that a person has received a full course of vaccination. At a decision of a doctor it might, in certain cases and if it is organisationally possible, be justified to administer a second dose with an mRNA vaccine even if the course was started with the Astra Zeneca vaccine.

Are women who want to have a child, are pregnant or breastfeeding allowed to get vaccinated against COVID-19?

Yes. The protection that the vaccine offers against getting sick outweighs all the risks related to getting vaccinated, including for women who are planning to get pregnant, are pregnant or breastfeeding:

  • if a woman who is pregnant gets infected, it increases the risk of both premature labour and the probability that the woman ends up needing intensive care. Vaccination reduces these risks considerably.
  • if a breastfeeding mother is vaccinated, the child will also obtain somewhat of a protection against COVID-19.

There is no biological reason why corona vaccines should be unsafe for pregnant women, foetuses or children who are being breastfed. This is also supported by animal tests in which multiplied vaccine doses administered to rats did not bring about any direct or indirect harm to pregnancy, the development of the foetus, birth or the postnatal period.

The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), where the Society of Estonian Gyneacologists is also a member, supports vaccinating pregnant and breastfeeding mothers against COVID-19, accounting also for the risk of infection, the size of the pregnancy, the health condition of the mother etc.

If you need further counselling to make a COVID-19 vaccination decision, we recommend consulting with your family doctor or calling the Family Doctor's Advice Line 1220 or 634 66 30. The calls are answered by medical professionals 24/7. Advice is given in Estonian and Russian (advice in English every day between 15.00 and 17.00).

I am not vaccinated against COVID-19 -- am I now unable to go to other countries?

A valid vaccination certificate is not a basis for travelling abroad but, depending on the requirements of the destination country, may offer an exemption from certain restrictions that the country has enacted (e.g. self-isolation).

The requirements of the destination country for entering, the conditions for the self-isolation obligation, and restrictions in force on the spot need to be taken into account when travelling. Information on the conditions for entry into other countries can be found on the Reisi Targalt website (in Estonian).

Will the vaccine save me if I am already sick and in a serious condition?

Vaccination will be postponed if the patient is severely ill with COVID-19.

Having had COVID-19 or seropositivity (i.e if there already is a determinable amount of antibodies in the blood) is not a contraindication to vaccination:

People who have had COVID-19 should be vaccinated with only one dose of the vaccine, preferably in the sixth month after recovery. After that the course of vaccination should be considered completed. Even if more than 6 months have passed since recovery, only one dose of the vaccine should be administered in order to ensure long-term protection.

People who get COVID-19 after receiving the first dose of the vaccine will not be administered the second dose and are considered vaccinated for the following six months.

What would the critical mass of vaccinated people have to be for the infection rate in the country to drop to about 10 people per 100,000?

Herd immunity is usually calculated based on the infection multiplier R (how many people will one sick person infect). If R is low, the percentage of vaccinated persons can be low as well. In the case of the coronavirus, the necessary critical mass is estimated to be about 70% of the society. If more severe strains that infect faster (the British strain) or can infect vaccinated people as well (the Brazilian strain) occur, the critical mass of vaccinated people should also be larger. For instance, the R-rate for measles is about 15, thus herd immunity for measles requires 95% of people to be vaccinated.

As children will not be getting vaccinated in the near future, the main onus for reaching herd immunity will fall on responsible adults.

Read more: https://www.ut.ee/et/teadus/teadlaste-vastused-koroonakusimustele (in Estonian).

Do the vaccines contain unknown ingredients, mercury, microchips, or other suspicious or toxic substances?

Those vaccines that are being processed and reviewed by the European Medicines Agency for receiving a marketing authorisation do not contain mercury particles or other unknown compounds. Finding microchips or other such things in vaccines belongs to the sphere of conspiracy theories. All medicines that receive a marketing authorisation in the European Union are checked, safe, of high quality and effective. All ingredients of the vaccine are listed on the information sheet of the vaccine.

More information on the vaccines can be found from here: https://vaktsineeri.ee/en/covid-19/covid-19-vaccines/

Is it allowed to consume alcohol before or after vaccination?

Consuming alcohol is not a direct contraindication and does not affect the production of antibodies but we do not recommend consuming alcohol either before or after vaccination. Temporary mild side effects, like fever, headache, muscle pain etc., may occur after receiving the coronavirus vaccination and n interaction with the vaccine, the alcohol could make you feel even worse.

Chronic alcoholics may have a weaker immune response.

It is definitely not allowed to go to the vaccination drunk! We ask you to be respectful towards the doctors and nurses that are administering the vaccinations.

Am I allowed to get the COVID-19 vaccine, and tick-borne encephalitis or flu vaccine at the same time?

The vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis (the so-called tick vaccine):

  • The interval between the COVID-19 vaccine and the vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis should be 14 days.

Flu vaccine:

  • There in no fixed interval of time that should be left between the COVID-19 vaccine and the flu vaccine. The vaccines can be received on the same day as well, but in orde to identify possible reactions, the shots should be administered to different arms.

When and how can I get a third dose of the vaccine?

Additional doses are currently being administered on the basis of a decision of a doctor; it is currently not possible to book an appointment for a third dose of the vaccine at one's own initiative.

There is a differentiation being made between additional doses and booster doses when it comes to third doses:

  • Additional doses for completing the course of vaccinations are required by people with a serious immune deficiency for whom two doses (one dose if the Jannsen vaccine is used) do not create a sufficient protection (e.g. patients who have received an organ transplant or have malignant tumours and are receiving immunosuppressive therapy). The decision about an additional dose is taken by a doctor, based on the health condition of the patient. It is important to keep in mind that at the estimation of the state immunoprophylaxis expert committee it is recommended that an additional dose be administered no sooner than 28 days after receiving the second dose, or no sooner than 28 after receiving the first dose for those who received a one dose vaccine.
  • A booster dose might at some point become necessary for everyone who has completed the course of COVID-19 vaccinations but at present we are awaiting the European Medicines Agency's assessment of the Pfizer/BioNTech's application for a marketing authorisation for the booster shot, which should be ready at the beginning of October.

 

Last updated: 27 September 2021